Are you prepared for winter? Avoiding viral infections – is the best option!

Are you prepared for winter? Well, firstly our clinically proven supplement NuCell IM, will provide you on a daily basis with a range of nutrients that help support immunity and energy levels in the body, while reducing oxidative stress. Additionally, there are many other ways to shore up your own defences, so you don’t succumb to the dreaded lurgy this winter. This article gathers tips and suggestions from experts, like the Common Colds Centre, Cardiff University, as well as our own nutritionists and immunologists.


If you are in contact with other people you are likely to get a cold as the viruses are so common.


HOWEVER…….Infection does not always mean a cold

Most human viral infections produce no disease at all. They are ‘subclinical’ (i.e. no symptoms), despite extensive viral replication. The concept that the majority of viral infections pass unnoticed without any signs of disease is known as the ‘iceberg concept of infection’, as the classical and severe disease cases only represent the tip of the iceberg of infection.




• Information from the Common Cold Centre, Cardiff University.


Colds are like an iceberg

The ‘iceberg’ concept of viral infection describes the general consensus by virologists that most infections in the community do not cause symptoms and pass without notice. At the very bottom of the iceberg we have the vast majority of encounters with common cold viruses in which the virus does not infect the nose or causes only minor symptoms such as short lived throat irritation and a couple of sneezes which are not recognised as a cold.


Try out these tips

Hand washing may help

Since cold viruses can be passed from person to person by hand contact or by touching contaminated surfaces such as door handles, you can help prevent infection by washing your hands. Studies have shown that hand washing can reduce the spread of common colds within the family.


Avoid contact with someone at the onset of their cold (not always possible!) 

In order for the infection to spread, you need to have close and prolonged contact with the infected other people and to cough or sneeze on them or pass on secretions from your nose via your hands.


You are most infectious when you have the early symptoms of sneezing, runny nose and cough.


Keep your nose warm!

A new theory that has been put forward to explain the seasonality of colds and flu. This suggests that our noses are colder in winter than summer and that cooling of the nose lowers resistance to infection. If this theory is correct then covering our nose with a scarf in cold weather could help prevent colds.


Kissing is OK

Close personal contact is necessary for the virus to spread and the home and school are the places where spread most often occurs. The common cold viruses are not spread by contact such as kissing, but appear to be spread by large particles expelled at close range by coughs and sneezes, and by contaminated fingers that pass the virus to the nose and eye. Your fingers can easily become contaminated with viruses by touching door handles etc. in public places. You may then touch your nose or eye and infect yourself. Tears from the eye drain via a duct into the nasal cavity and when we touch our eyes with contaminated fingers we pass viruses into the nose!


Get less stressed! 

There is much evidence that indicates that the stress of everyday life can influence the susceptibility to infection. It is still not clear how psychological stress affects the immune system but the most likely link appears to be the increase in the release of corticosteroid hormones associated with stress, as corticosteroid hormones are known to decrease resistance to infection.


The increased stress of modern life, particularly in cities, may be one of the factors predisposing us to the very high incidence of common cold infections in crowded environments.


Keep Fit

‘Healthy body, healthy mind’. Exercise has been proven to be one of the best ways to de-stress. Regular physical activity sharpens reflexes, stimulates your hormones, improves gut function, promotes refreshing sleep, and helps keep us trim and in a buoyant mood.


We are what we eat!

Eating well is an important part of maintaining good health.

Key aspects to a healthy diet include; eating the right number of calories, avoiding high sugar foods, eating a wide range of foods, reducing reliance on processed foods, staying hydrated, and using food supplements to supply essential nutrients if you are unable to ‘Eat well’. Food supplements NuCell IM contains vitamins and nucleotides to support your immune system and ability to deal with the stressful lifestyles. Put through its ‘research paces’, you can check out our other articles to see how this exceptional product helps people overcome modern stresses which compromise a healthy immune system:


[list type=”3″]



Our experts have produced a handy fact sheet, ‘Keeping Healthy’ with tips for general fitness and how to eat healthily to build a strong immune system to help fight off these winter infections.


Click here ‘Keeping Healthy’ to download this fact sheet.


NuCell IM featured in the article ‘Nucleotides – the building blocks of life’

Functional Sports Nutrition (FSN) is the magazine for the individuals and professionals who are serious about sport, and features all the latest advances in sports nutrition. This July/August 2011 issue includes an article featuring the ground breaking research on the sports recovery supplement, NuCell IM, this article follows:

‘Nucleotides – building blocks of life’.




Click to download this article as a PDF.


[blockquote]“The problem is that foods rich in nucleotides are now rarely on our menu. Meat products from organs such as liver, kidney, intestines and lung are particularly rich sources of nucleotides, but are now rarely eaten.”[/blockquote]


DNA is the substance inside each and every cell that carries our genetic blueprint. As shown by the characteristic diagram, it is made from building blocks called nucleotides. There is a particular need for sufficiently available nucleotides in cells that divide often. This is the case for our immune cells, which have to divide rapidly in order to respond fast enough to an infection. But also the cells lining our digestive tract, called intestinal villi, are frequently replaced and are in of need of nucleotides for repair. The body is able to recycle old nucleotides from worn out cells (the salvage pathway) or to make new nucleotides (by de novo synthesis) from sources such as glucose and glutamine. However, this process is not very energy-efficient; it’s time-consuming and metabolically taxing. Thus, since the body has only a finite capacity to provide its own nucleotides, it is uniquely able to extract them from foods in our diet which contain them in substantial quantities.


Nucleotides and Immunity

In order to stay healthy, it is crucial for our bodies to be able to rapidly respond to special needs and stressful circumstances. For example, when infected with the Flu, millions of viruses invade our body: these need to be destroyed in order to regain normal health. It therefore becomes crucial that the body has the availability of sufficient nucleotides to rapidly and efficiently respond by producing enough new white blood cells to overcome the infection. If the nucleotide supply is insufficient, the Flu viruses will proliferate unhindered, which may lead to more severe symptoms and prolonged illness. Conversely, with enough nucleotides the infection can be quickly counteracted during its initial stages.


As with many other nutrients, the evidence of the effectiveness and importance of dietary nucleotides was first demonstrated in animal nutrition where they are widely used in fish, poultry, pigs, cattle and horses to enhance performance and to intensify and accelerate natural immune response. Nucleotides are not yet considered essential nutrients for humans, but stress, physical exertion, illness, poor diet and the excessive use of antibiotics and alcohol increase their need in order to facilitate timely and effective cell proliferation. Human breast milk is especially rich in nucleotides. Many infant formulas now contain them because studies have shown that babies fed nucleotide-supplemented infant formula experience better growth and development, maintain a healthier immune system, and have increased levels of beneficial intestinal bacteria which reduce gastrointestinal distress.


In adults, advantageous effects were found in markers of immune function: i.e. salivary immunoglobulin-A (sIgA), which is involved in the first defence against coughs and colds. From a more holistic point of view, it is interesting that both innate and acquired immunity need rapid and unhindered cell proliferation for proper functionality. Unfortunately, cells of the immune system lack the potential to synthesise nucleotides themselves. Other cells not capable of producing sufficient amounts of nucleotides include gastrointestinal and blood cells. Importantly, nucleotides do not stimulate innate or acquired immunity, but rather provide the resource for unhindered cell proliferation, gene expression, and response to special environmental and physical challenges. Their universal use and fundamental functionality and efficacy in every living organism make nucleotides a valuable management tool for many stress and health related conditions.


Dietary and Supplemental Nucleotides

Nucleotides have also gained interest in the area of food allergies or sensitivities because the gut and the immune system are dependent on their ready supply to meet the rapid “turnover” of cells. Nucleotides modulate the expression of inflammatory reactions in the intestine. In infants, nucleotides boost the production of Immunoglobulins and increase the tolerance of food. Another outcome, and probably the most interesting one, is the improvement of gut health: nucleotides strikingly increase the length of intestinal villi (shown in Figure 2), the structures in our gut which constitute the enormous surface of our gastrointestinal tract. For instance, the incidence and duration of childhood diarrhoea is reduced when supplemental nucleotides are given. Improvements were also found in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a very common gastrointestinal disease.


Intestinal villi

Intestinal villi

The problem is that foods rich in nucleotides are now rarely on our menu. Meat products from organs such as liver, kidney, intestines and lung are particularly rich sources of nucleotides, but are now rarely eaten. Modest vegetarian sources include yeast extract, mushrooms, broccoli and cauliflower. In the light of a widespread tendency to cut down on adequate animal-derived foods and the common low consumption of vegetables, it seems reasonable that our overall intake is substantially lower than in pre-industrialised times and populations where a hunter-gatherer type diet was common. Adding nucleotide-rich foods or taking supplements derived from yeast may improve gut integrity, digestive processes and possibly diminish some food intolerances. It may also be relevant for patients of celiac disease in helping speed up the recovery of the gut villi damaged by a gluten-containing diet.


There are a couple of contraindications for taking nucleotides as supplements: because of its purine content, people who are genetically predisposed, have a history of, or suffer from gout are generally advised not to supplement nucleotides. Furthermore, the strong immune-enhancing effect prohibits the use of nucleotides for sufferers of auto-immune diseases and users of immune-repressive medications.


Nucleotides for Athletes: Improved Recovery and Muscle-to-fat Ratio

Body tissue is constantly catabolised during training and competition and has to be rebuilt. Without prior physical training and concomitant tissue break-down, no muscle build-up, strength enhancement or performance improvements will occur. Furthermore, the more quickly cells are resynthesised after workouts, the faster and better will be the recovery. Tissues or cells with a high turnover rate such as the skin, gut-lining, white and red blood cells, as well as growing and recovery tissues, need a steady resynthesis of DNA and high turnover rate of RNA. Particularly, in phases of intensive training, an additional supply of nucleotides through dietary intake is important. Nucleotides are essential for muscle function in different ways: besides protein synthesis, they improve oxygen transport and reduce the effects of lesions in the intestinal tract and muscles.


Hard physical training is a significant stress factor for athletes with various negative outcomes. For example, the levels of immunosuppressive substances like the stress hormone cortisol increase and thereby reduce the defence forces of our body. As a result, decreased levels of the important immunoglobulin sIgA have been found in athletes prone to physical stress. Nucleotide supplementation for 60 days significantly increased sIgA compared to a placebo. Additionally, in the liver and muscles, lower serum levels of stress indicators like creatinase and lactate deyhdrogenase were found after nucleotide supplementation versus the placebo, demonstrating improved recovery from physical stress.


Regarding lipoprotein metabolism, nucleotides are advantageous for endurance and strength athletes alike. Nucleotides are first transported to the liver where they promote the synthesis of protein instead of fatty acids, thereby optimising the muscle-to-fat ratio. This effect is not only significant for lean muscle build-up, but also for weight management. In conjunction with lipoprotein metabolism, effects of nucleotide supplementation have demonstrated increased levels of (good) HDL-cholesterol.


Dietary nucleotides offer pre-absorptive benefits in that they serve as fuel to the gut flora (e.g. bifidus bacteria), which improves intestinal health and nutrient absorption. Our gut is the organ with the highest immune capacity of the body. Therefore, a sufficient supply of nucleotides reduces the incidence of intestinal infections. Improved gut health is positive on overall health in general. The absorption of all nutrients like amino acids, minerals, vitamins and other micronutrients takes place in the gut.


NuCell IM – a clinically tested nucleotide supplement

For the serious athlete, supplemental nucleotides may constitute the extra building blocks that are needed during times of extraordinary demand, such as during recovery from strenuous exercise or injury and as prophylaxis to prevent or overcome infections. Even the harmful effects on gut flora from antibiotics may be reversed more rapidly. In several studies*, supplemented nucleotides were shown to more rapidly restore reduced hematocrit values (red blood cell counts) which in turn, improved oxygen supply and uptake.


One double-blind study demonstrated reduced cortisol values after 60 days of NuCell IM supplementation compared to the placebo and pre-supplementation, along with improved sIgA levels. Cortisol is a stress marker and its reduction after physical exercise points to reduced exertion and improved recovery. Because cortisol is also a testosterone inhibitor, its reduction is also advantageous for protein synthesis and muscle build-up. As mentioned above, the increased sIgA values indicate a strengthening of the athletes’ immunity. The measured differences on IgA and cortisol were highly significant (p<0.0001) [1] and the results have been confirmed in another publication by the same authors (2).


An unpublished study done by McNaughton et al. with NuCell IM found substantially enhanced (good) HDL-cholesterol of 15% vs. placebo and even a drop in the control group after supplementation for 60 days (see Figure 3). Additionally, slightly lower (bad) LDL-cholesterol levels were measured. Earlier studies on nucleotides examined the influence on immunity with respect to cold and flu symptoms. NuCell IM supplementation for 28 days reduced the symptoms of a common cold or flu infection or secondary infection: painful sinuses, earache, dry mouth, sore throat, muscle aches, and headache (3).


Much potential exists for the use of nucleotides in a sports person‘s supplement regime. By supporting a more rapid turnover of immune, digestive, muscle and blood cells, along with improving anabolic vs. catabolic drive, this “new” type of nutrient can be a real support to the training and recovery processes of a serious athlete.


Figure 3 – Nucleotide supplements increase HDL


*Studies on nucleotides in athletes were undertaken at the University of Bath, with the supplement corresponding to NuCell IM, manufactured by Swiss biochemical company Pro Bio Ltd.



[list type=”3″]

  • 1. McNaughton et al (2006). The effects of a nucleotide supplement on salivary IgA and Cortisol after moderate endurance exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 46:84-89.
  • 2. McNaughton et al (2007). The effects of a nucleotide supplement on the immune and metabolic response to short term, high intensity exercise performance in trained male subjects. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 47(1):112-118.
  • 3. Davidson et al (2002). A randomised, double blind placebo controlled Phase II exploratory trial to assess the effect of Nucell® supplementation on perceived symptoms of the common cold and markers of immune function. Queen Margaret University College, Dep. of Dietetics, Edinburgh, Scotland.


Other Nucleotide studies:

[list type=”3″]

  • Grimble, G.K. (1996) Why are dietary nucleotides essential nutrients? British Journal of Nutrition, 76:475-478.
  • Jyonouchi, H. (1994). Nucleotide Actions on Humoral Immune Responses. Journal of Nutrition. 124:138S-143S.
  • Uauy, R. (1994). Nonimmune System Response to Dietary Nucleotides. Journal of Nutrition. 124:157S-159S.
  • Van Buren C.T. (1994). The Role of Nucleotides in Adult Nutrition. Journal of Nutrition. 124:160S-164S.
  • Köppel, P. (2001). The Role of Nucleotides in the Body. Unpublished, Pro Bio, Switzerland.
  • Tanaka et al (1980). Improved Medium für Selective Isolation and Enumeration of Bifidobacterium. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 40(5):866 ff.



[blockquote]About the Author

Dr. Peter Koeppel has a PhD in Biochemistry and Immunology. He was trained in Biochemistry with a special interest in clinical Immunology at the Institute of Virology at the University of Zürich. He then worked as a researcher in osteoarthritis and osteoporosis in a pharmaceutical company in Basel. Since 1989 he has been involved in producing special additives for human nutrition for ProBio Ltd, laterally becoming the managing director of this company in year 2000.[/blockquote]

Physical & mental stress can compromise immune response

Stress is a worldwide challenge to health and can come from both physical and emotional sources.


Sometimes it comes from extreme conditions like poverty, starvation, persecution, or war. It can also be the result of caring for a sick family member, the loss of a loved one, troubled relationships or being in an occupation that involves a high level of responsibility or danger. Heavy workloads and the challenges of balancing professional and family life are increasingly common factors.


Stress affects the hormone cortisol produced by the adrenal glands. In small quantities cortisol is helpful. It is anti-inflammatory, speeds tissue repair and controls excess immune cell production. However, continued stress raises cortisol levels beyond healthy levels and slows the production of “good” prostaglandins. “Good” prostaglandins support immune function, dilate blood vessels, inhibit “thick” blood and are anti-inflammatory. The slowed prostaglandin production allows for the opposite – inflammation, immune suppression, etc.



Even healthy people with a balanced immune system can go through phases of suboptimal immune function due to situations of overexertion, stress and exhaustion, which make them more vulnerable to infections. In Switzerland e.g. a new survey revealed that 50% of young people suffer stress.


Excessive stress, either physical or mental, has a detrimental effect on the optimal functioning of the immune system. During a period of stress induced raised cortisol, the immune cells nearly disappear from the blood. The part of the immune system most sensitive to increased cortisol levels are the Natural Killer Cells. A non-scientific analogy to this is that playing card that finally tips the balance on the house of cards, bringing everything crashing down.


The diagram below shows how lifestyle stresses influence immune status and the risk of infection.


It shows that moderate stress and exercise generally leads to a high immune status, and consequent low risk of infection. Conversely, very intensive stress and exercise impacts adversely on the immune status, increasing greatly the risk of infection.


Influence of stress on the immune status and the risk of infection



The effect of stress on the immune system is comparable to the effect of exercise on the muscle. An unused muscle will degenerate, a moderately or intense used muscle will strengthen, but very intensive muscle efforts can lead to severe damage of the muscle.


Pioneering research using nucleotides to overcome the effects of stress

Nucleotides are key components in major processes within the body and play key roles in many biological processes. The requirements for nucleotides increase during times of elevated stress, as indicated previously or additionally when recovering from major tissue injury, systemic infection or when liver function is suppressed.


It has been found that the application of a nucleotide free diet significantly suppresses the cellular immunity. In several studies nucleotide supplementation has been shown to reverse the immunosuppression caused by malnutrition and starvation. A trial with race horses revealed that the level of cortisol after an anaerobic test was significantly lower in horses fed on diet supplemented with nucleotides compared to horses fed the non-supplemented diet, with immunity parameters simultaneously improved. In the same trial a significant increase of the liver enzymes was found in the horses supplemented with nucleotides.


Until recently, there has been limited data available on nucleotide supplementation on the immunologic effects and on stress parameters in humans.  This is an area of research that Pro Bio Ltd, Switzerland, along with Nucleotide Nutrition Ltd, have been pioneering. Pro Bio’s exclusive formulation of purified nucleotides has been shown to lower the formation of cortisol and therefore to prevent the decline of the immune system in endurance athletes.


Effects of a nucleotide supplement in trained male subjects on IgA, Cortisol and Lactate after endurance exercise



The aim of this research was to examine the effect of a nucleotide supplement on IgA and Cortisol levels after endurance exercise of young healthy males.


Endurance exercise trials

Prior to the supplementation period, each subject undertook an incremental exercise test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer to determine VO2max.


On a separate day the subjects completed a prolonged endurance exercise trial. This comprised 90 minutes at a power output (W) representing 60% VO2max.


Analysis of IgA and cortisol

Prior to the to the endurance trial and immediately upon cessation another saliva and a blood sample was obtained. The saliva was analysed for both Cortisol and IgA and the blood for lactate.



After supplementation of nucleotides IgA was significantly (p<0.01) higher after exercise in test persons compared with placebo subjects. The pre-exercise level of cortisol were not significantly different (p>0.11). However, after supplementation of nucleotides cortisol was significantly (p<0.0001) lower after exercise in test persons compared with placebo subjects.


After the exercise the level of lactate was also significantly lower in athletes receiving a nucleotide supplement.



Nucleotides can help reduce cortisol accumulation and therefore reduce stress.



[list type=”3″]

  • Seyle, H. (1975), The stress of life New York, McGraw-Hill
  • Biondi, M. (2001), Effects of stress on Immune function: an overview. In Ader R,
    Felten DL, Cohen N, editors, Psychoneuroimmunology. San Diego (CA):
    Academic press
  • Avitsur R, Stark JL, Sheridan JF. (2001), Social stress induces glucocorticoid
    resistance in subordinate animals. Horm Behav; 39
  • Avitsur R, Powell N, Padgett D Sheridan JF. (2009), Social Interactions, Stress,
    and Immunity. Immunol Allergy Clin N Am; 29
  • Miller GE, Cohen S, Ritchey AK. (2002) Chronic psychological stress and the
    regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines: A glucocorticoid resistance model.
    Health Psychology; 21
  • Dantzer R, Kelley KW. (1989) Stress and immunity: an integrated view of
    relationships between the brain and the immune system. Life Sci; 44
  • Schedloswki M, Schmidt RE. (1994) Stress and the immune system.
    Naturwissenschaften; 83
  • Avitsur R. (2006) Social Interactions, Stress and Immunity.
    Neurologic Clinics; 24
  • Art T, Votion D, McEntee K, Amory H, Kinden A, Close R, Lekeux P. (1994)
    Cardio-respiratory, haematological and biochemical parameter adjustments
    to exercise: effect of a probiotic in horses during training. Vet Res; 25
  • Vasquez-Garibay E, Mendez-Estrada C, Romero-Velarde E, Garcia-Iglesias T,
    Campollo-Rivas O. (2004) Nutritional support with nucleotides addition favors
    Immune response in severely malnourished infants. Arch Med Res, 35
  • Van Buren C, Rudolph F. (1994) Dietary nucleotides:
    A conditional requirement. Nutrition, 13
  • McNaughton L, et al (2006). The effect of a nucleotide supplement on
    salivary IgA and cortisol after moderate endurance exercise. J Sports Med &
    Phys Fit
    46, 84-8
  • McNaughton L, et al (2007). The effects of a nucleotide supplement on the
    immune response to short term, high intensity exercise performance in trained
    male subjects. J Sports Med & Phys Fit 47:1, 112-119


Happy 1st Birthday Nucleotide Nutrition Ltd

I can’t believe it, but it’s now 12 months since Nucleotide Nutrition Ltd was formed to spearhead the development and marketing of the unique nucleotide formulas manufactured by our Swiss partners, Pro Bio.


We have faced many challenges as a start-up, not least the imminent introduction of the EU Health Claims regulations.  However, I am delighted to report that much has been achieved:


[list type=”3″]

  • Impressive results achieved in our elite sport pilot studies, with athletes tested in
    sprint and football simulations, using elite level doses of the Nutri-tide® formula.
  • This has resulted in our collaboration with a significant externally funded research
    project (see next bullet point). This new research programme originates from our
    ‘immunity and stress’ research using NuCell®IM.
  •  Collaboration with 3 year research project researching the effects of
    supplementary nucleotides, Nutri-tide®, under conditions of ‘high intensity stress’
    started in October 2012 at Liverpool John Moores University.
  • Innovation Voucher Award. Awarded by the Technology
    Strategy Board (TSB) to enable the testing of all our products for prohibited
    substances through the WADA recognised ‘Informed-Sports’ registration scheme.
  • E-commerce website.  Our food supplements can now be purchased directly from us,
    with multi-pack discounts, all postage free.  We have created affiliate partners and now
    operate a‘friends and family’ voucher scheme. Please feel free to use this voucher
    code (F&F25) to purchase products from our website see the link below. It gives
    an additional 25% saving over and above the multipack (e.g. 3 for 2) discounts.
    E-commerce website
  • Boots – In July IntestAid®IB moved up to the next shelf in the Healthy
    Digestion section at over 450 Boots stores.



NuCell®IM – Immunity, recovery and energy/vitality  – Combines the exclusive and innovative Nutri-tide® nucleotide nutritional formula with vitamins, amino acids plus yeast extracts. The clinical trials and testimonials show this product provides excellent immune system support, and is suitable for people with stressful lifestyles, sportsmen and women, and mums 2 be.

IntestAid®IB – Digestive health – Combines the exclusive and innovative Nutri-tide® nucleotide nutritional formula with B vitamins, amino acid and prebiotic, fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS). The clinical trial and testimonials show that this product supports people with digestive health issues, such as IBS, and is suitable for people with restrictive diets and slimmers.


None of these achievements would be possible without the support of the following organisations and friends:


[list type=”3″]

  • Pro Bio – our Swiss manufacturing partners, who continue to supply the
    highest quality, unique and efficacious nucleotide-based nutritional
    supplements – A collaboration pioneering nucleotide supplementation
  • Sci-Tech Daresbury – who provide us with a prestigious home, valuable
    connections and friendly support
  • ANH Consultancy – whose expertise in the regulatory environment
    ensures our products remain compliant, check out their excellent newsletters.
  • Liverpool John Moores University – for recognising the potential
    for nucleotides supplementation for athletes and enabling our involvement
    in such extensive research
  • Deane Biggart (creative director and owner) of db Creative Solutions
    all our corporate and packaging design and advertising
  • Webgineering – providing us with a window to the virtual world, and the tools
    to reach our potential customers
  • Eurocom Healthcare Communications– saw our potential and will now
    be providing marketing and creative communications support



If you would like to keep up with our activities, please sign up to our newsletter SIGN UP.  We regularly post articles that highlight new research in the ‘nucleotide’ world.  You’ll be amazed how many different ways these little nutritional blighters influence our continued good health!


I would love to hear from you too.


Best wishes